Staff training has been a concern since the first edition of the Guide. The eighth edition of the Guide continues this theme with no significant changes, highlighting that it is essential which seems stronger than must that people caring for animals be trained on recognizing species-specific and individual indicators of wellbeing p Site visitors could assess this need as an engineering standard by looking at training records or as a performance standard by observing outcomes and determining whether poor outcomes reflect insufficient training.
Therefore, institutions may have considerably more flexibility in setting standards in loco , with the potential for increased interinstitutional variability in animal pain management. Institutions may differ widely in their expectation of preemptive postsurgical analgesia, in allowing various procedures for example, tissue collection for genotyping without anesthesia, or in their practices for permitting withholding of analgesics during painful procedures, and yet all might be compliant with the eighth edition of the Guide.
The Guide has long included various normative, ethical positions that cannot be derived from science alone. Surgeries that previously were classed as minor might now be classed as major and vice versa. The issue of when to allow multiple surgery is a subset of a broader long-running ethical concern in laboratory animal use: the balance of refinement compared with reduction of animal numbers. This norm could apply to surgical or nonsurgical uses.
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The Guide generally has not explained its reasoning on these issues in depth, but in this balance of numbers compared with harm-per-animal, scientific reasoning is less likely at play than are basic ethical principles, such as fairness. The Guide does contain some specific recommended or required practices, although the jurisdictional recommendations nonetheless predominate. Compared with the level of detail in the Environment, Housing, and Management chapter, for example, detailed technical recommendations on pain management are sparse.
Veterinarians are expected to stay current with evolving information and standards of care, as presented in emerging research studies, at conferences and symposia, and in assorted textbooks. Some of these can and is statements have associated should statements in the current edition of the Guide. Others for example, discussions of balanced anesthesia, preemptive analgesia, and the use of patches and pumps for long-term analgesia do not have the status of should in the current edition. So what should institutions do to stay compliant with the Guide regarding pain management?
The preface to the eighth edition of the Guide preface notes increased coverage of intraoperative monitoring p and that readers are advised to read and interpret, looking for the implied should. Because routine monitoring of blood pressure and even respiratory rates is difficult in mice and is all but impossible with fish or frogs, professional judgment is necessary. The current issue of the Guide has likewise greatly expanded the discussion of humane endpoints as a strategy for limiting animal pain and distress.
The emphasis is on defining endpoints early in the process during protocol development , as a collaboration among veterinarian, principal investigator, and IACUC p 27— Pilot studies are recommended for some situations, as are recommended readings on setting appropriate endpoints. Models most likely to require endpoint-setting are listed p 27 with a general suggestion that physical or behavioral deficits or tumor size might serve as endpoints p ; more specific technical design or performance standards for example, tumor diameter of 2 cm or greater or a tumor that interferes with mobility are not provided.
Despite the expanded coverage, especially in details on anesthetic monitoring and setting endpoints, and despite specific jurisdictional recommendations on management of perioperative and chronic pain, the eighth edition of the Guide has relatively little content on the technical and veterinary aspects of animal pain management.
The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animals, 8th Edition
The following sections discuss some aspects of pain management that are not covered extensively in the Guide. Chronic pain is a serious concern in laboratory animal medicine. This pain may be the direct result of studies of chronic pain or may accompany spontaneous arthritides, cancers, or other natural illnesses. Contingent pain that is caused by experiments for example, cancer studies but is not a necessary or intended part of the experiment is a significant welfare problem. Moderate chronic pain can be challenging to diagnose. Cancer, joint, and other chronic pains in human and nonhumans are often refractory to analgesic treatments.
The eighth edition of the Guide and the National Research Council's Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals 15 agree that monitoring for the earliest possible endpoints is crucial, but in the face of myriad models that may cause chronic pain, both publications stop short of setting specific design or performance standards.
The current Guide mentions 2 possibilities for analgesic management of chronic pain: transdermal opiate patches and implantable osmotic pumps containing analgesics p At present, this one-sentence mention seems arbitrary in highlighting these 2 modalities and is of limited use. Other considerations include size limitations opiate patches that are suitable for small rodents are not presently available , slow-release NSAID or lidocaine patches, issues related to the need for multiple surgeries to place and replace osmotic pumps, the availability of oral pain medications for long-term use, and consideration of the negative effects of pain and analgesics on animal health and on some types of research, whether from chronic pain or from the available treatments.
Studies that are reported in column E on annual USDA reports that is, studies for which the IACUC approves withholding of pain management in animals that will undergo more than minor or momentary pain or distress generate major animal welfare concerns. Category E studies are not limited to pain research but may include a wide range of cancer, toxicology, inflammatory, or infectious disease research. The fourth and fifth editions of the Guide had clear and simple jurisdictional statements indicating that if such studies must be done, they must be directly supervised by the responsible investigator.
Therefore, clear guidance—be it ethical, jurisdictional, or technical—is presently unavailable. The National Research Council's publication on pain 15 emphasizes that pain itself, not just analgesics, can cause unwanted variability in research data. Therefore a reasonable standard for approval of category E studies might be the requirement for a literature search for the effects of both pain and analgesics on the model.
Such literature searches might generate no useful information, but this suggested standard coupled with more comprehensive reporting of animal research, 29 , 31 could influence publication practices. An IACUC must determine how to proceed if necessary information on effects of pain and pain treatments is incomplete or not provided. A model-by-model review, suggesting which analgesics are acceptable and which are disruptive, could be helpful but likely would require far more detail than the Guide could include. Currently, institutions may vary greatly in what they consider to be a category E study and in what justification is necessary for its approval.
For euthanasia as called for in Public Health Service Policy 14 and for biosafety, the Guide sets standards by referring to other expert documents. The National Research Council publication on pain 15 could serve this role with regard to pain. The document contains some fairly explicit standards, 15 including that 1 analgesic use should be timed so that effective plasma levels are achieved when nociceptive barrage is greatest p 72 ; 2 untreated pain should not be used to restrain animals from moving and injuring themselves postoperatively p 76 ; 3 postoperative pain management should not rest solely on the residual effects of intraoperative anesthetics with analgesic effects p 76 ; 4 analgesics should be excluded from studies of inflammation only if other factors that affect inflammation or immunity are well controlled p 89 ; and 5 standard manipulations and husbandry procedures should be modified for hyperalgesic animals in chronic pain to less painful procedures p In the 14 y since the publication of the seventh edition of the Guide , the literature on laboratory animal pain detection and treatment has grown.
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Veterinary standards of practice for pain management have evolved. Few explicit new commitments for pain management are detailed in the current Guide , beyond expanded consideration of humane endpoints. To comply with the new Guide, institutions already familiar with the jurisdictional standards of the seventh edition of the Guide , with its requirements for IACUC oversight and veterinary input, may require implementation of expanded veterinary authorization for management of emergencies but will otherwise be well situated to comply with the guidelines and mandates of the current Guide.
Recent Activity. With respect to pain management standards, a fourth type of standard-the jurisdictional standard-has been prevalent through all 8 editions of the Guide. Although data on pain management in laboratory animals has expanded greatly since the Guide, the eighth edition does not contain major new standards or guidance regarding animal pain management. The current article details selected specific pain management standards in the Guide, lists topics in pain management for which the Guide does not set clear standards, and suggests possible standards for those topics.
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PMID: Larry Carbone. Email: ude. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The eighth edition Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals sets standards for diverse laboratory animal care and use practices. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Jurisdictional standards. Other personnel issues: training and qualifications. Sources of external guidance. Ethical positions. Technical guidance. Guidance on Specific Facets of Animal Pain Management Despite the expanded coverage, especially in details on anesthetic monitoring and setting endpoints, and despite specific jurisdictional recommendations on management of perioperative and chronic pain, the eighth edition of the Guide has relatively little content on the technical and veterinary aspects of animal pain management.
It is the definitive guide for the care, feeding and use of laboratory animals. It was first published in , and until , its most recent edition was published in Among other changes, it addresses more fully the care of animals during surgery and anesthesia. An ebook is one of two file formats that are intended to be used with e-reader devices and apps such as Amazon Kindle or Apple iBooks.
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Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large.
The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including aquatic species, and includes extensive references.
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It is organized around major components of animal use:. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.
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