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In the event of an attack from an aggressor, a state would massively retaliate with force disproportionate to the size of the attack, which would likely involve the use of nuclear weapons on a massive scale. Thus, the administration increased the number of nuclear warheads from 1, in to 18, by early Despite overwhelming U. The administration also exploited new technology. In the eight-engine B Stratofortress bomber, the first true jet bomber designed to carry nuclear weapons, was developed.

In and , Khrushchev tried to impose the concept of nuclear deterrence on the military. Nuclear deterrence holds that the reason for having nuclear weapons is to discourage their use by a potential enemy. Khrushchev hoped that exclusive reliance on the nuclear firepower of the newly created Strategic Rocket Forces would remove the need for increased defense expenditures.

However, during the Cuban missile crisis the USSR had only four R-7 Semyorkas and a few Rs intercontinental missiles deployed in vulnerable surface launchers. In the Soviet submarine fleet had only eight submarines with short-range missiles which could be launched only from submarines that surfaced and lost their hidden submerged status. Should such a war break out, both sides would pursue the most decisive aims with the most forceful means and methods. The war would assume an unprecedented geographical scope, but Soviet military writers argued that the use of nuclear weapons in the initial period of the war would decide the course and outcome of the war as a whole.

Both in doctrine and in strategy, the nuclear weapon reigned supreme. An important part of the Cold War nuclear competition was the concept of mutual assured destruction MAD. Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender. While the Soviets acquired atomic weapons in , it took years for them to reach parity with the United States.

In the meantime, the Americans developed the hydrogen bomb, which the Soviets matched during the era of Khrushchev. New methods of delivery such as Submarine-launched ballistic missiles and Intercontinental ballistic missiles with MIRV warheads meant that each superpower could easily devastate the other, even after attack by an enemy. True second-strike capability could only be achieved when a nation had a guaranteed ability to fully retaliate after a first-strike attack.

The United States had achieved an early form of second-strike capability by fielding continual patrols of strategic nuclear bombers with a large number of planes always in the air on their way to or from fail-safe points close to the borders of the Soviet Union. This meant the United States could still retaliate even after a devastating first-strike attack. The tactic was expensive and problematic because of the high cost of keeping enough planes in the air at all times and the possibility they would be shot down by Soviet anti-aircraft missiles before reaching their targets.

In addition, as the idea of a missile gap existing between the U.

The Soviet Union and the strategy of non-alignment in the Third World (new reprint)

One of the most important forms of non-violent competition between the U. It had its origins in the missile-based nuclear arms race between the two nations following World War II, aided by captured German missile technology and personnel from their missile program. The technological superiority required for such supremacy was seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of ideological superiority.


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The Space Race spawned pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, unmanned space probes of the Moon, Venus, and Mars, and human space flight in low Earth orbit and to the Moon. The race peaked with the July 20, , U. The USSR tried but failed manned lunar missions, and eventually cancelled them and concentrated on Earth orbital space stations. The end of the Space Race is harder to pinpoint than its beginning, but it was over by the December, dissolution of the Soviet Union, after which true space flight cooperation between the U.

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In separate public announcements four days apart, both nations declared they would launch artificial Earth satellites by or Korolev was buoyed by the first successful launches of his R-7 rocket in August and September, which paved the way for him to launch his sputnik.

The Soviet success raised a great deal of concern and fear in the United States. This essentially gave the Soviets two propaganda victories at once sending the satellite into space and proving the distance capabilities of their missiles. This proved that the Soviets had rockets capable of sending nuclear weapons from Russia to Europe and even North America. This was the most immediate threat posed by the launch of Sputnik 1.

Not only did the Soviet Union have this ability, the United States did not. America, a land with a history of geographical security, suddenly seemed vulnerable. Overall, what caused the fear for the American people was not the satellite itself but more so the rocket that put Sputnik into orbit. Sputnik 1: The Soviet Union achieved an early lead in the space race by launching the first artificial satellite Sputnik 1 replica in Vostok 1 orbited the Earth for minutes and made its reentry over the Soviet Union, with Gagarin ejected from the spacecraft at 23, feet and landing by parachute.

Gagarin became a national hero of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, and a worldwide celebrity. President John F. In , both nations faced serious challenges that brought their programs to temporary halts. Both had been rushing at full-speed toward the first piloted flights of Apollo and Soyuz without paying due diligence to growing design and manufacturing problems. The results proved fatal to both pioneering crews.

The United States recovered from the Apollo 1 fire, fixing the fatal flaws in an improved version of the Block II command module. The US proceeded with unpiloted test launches of the Saturn V launch vehicle Apollo 4 and Apollo 6 and the Lunar Module Apollo 5 during the latter half of and early Unknown to the Americans, the Soviet Moon program was in deep trouble. After two successive launch failures of the N1 rocket in , Soviet plans for a piloted landing suffered delay.

The launch pad explosion of the N-1 on July 3, was a significant setback. Apollo 11 was prepared with the goal of a July landing in the Sea of Tranquility. They trained for the mission until just before the launch day. The trip to the Moon took just over three days. After overcoming several computer overload alarms caused by an antenna switch left in the wrong position and a slight downrange error, Armstrong took over manual flight control at about feet and guided the Lunar Module to a safe landing spot at UTC, July 20, The first humans on the Moon waited six hours before leaving their craft.

The first step was witnessed by at least one-fifth of the population of Earth, or about million people. After Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the Moon, Aldrin joined him on the surface almost 20 minutes later. Altogether, they spent just under two and one-quarter hours outside their craft. Armstrong took this photo. The United States and the Soviet Union increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World as decolonization gained momentum in the s and early s. Describe some of the ways in which the U. After this point, proxy battles in the Third World became an important arena of superpower competition.

The Eisenhower administration adjusted U. By the early s, the NATO alliance had integrated Western Europe into the system of mutual defense pacts, providing safeguards against subversion or neutrality in the bloc. The Marshall Plan had rebuilt a functioning Western economic system, thwarting the electoral appeal of the radical left.

When economic aid ended the dollar shortage and stimulated private investment for postwar reconstruction, sparing the U. The combined effects of two great European wars weakened the political and economic domination of Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East by European powers. The sheer number of nation states increased drastically. The Cold War placed immense pressure on developing nations to align with one of the superpower factions.

Both promised substantial financial, military, and diplomatic aid in exchange for an alliance, in which issues like corruption and human rights abuses were overlooked or ignored. When an allied government was threatened, the superpowers were often prepared and willing to intervene. Many countries in the emerging non-aligned movement developed a close relation with Moscow. In the Arab world, the focus was pan-Arab nationalism. The U.

The Eisenhower administration attempted to formalize its alliance system through a series of pacts. John Foster Dulles, a rigid anti-communist, focused aggressively on Third World politics. He intensified efforts to integrate the entire noncommunist Third World into a system of mutual defense pacts, traveling almost , miles to cement new alliances. Dulles initiated the Manila Conference in , resulting in the SEATO pact that united eight nations either located in Southeast Asia or with interests there in a neutral defense pact.

Many Third World nations did not want to align themselves with either of the superpowers.

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History and Evolution of Non-Aligned Movement

The non-aligned movement, led by India, Egypt, and Austria, attempted to unite the third world against what was seen as imperialism by both the East and the West. Dulles, along with most U. The Eisenhower-Dulles approach to foreign policy sought to overthrow unfriendly governments in a covert way. Throughout much of Latin America, reactionary oligarchies ruled through their alliances with the military elite and United States.

Although the nature of the U. By the midth century, much of the region passed through a higher state of economic development, which bolstered the power and ranks of the lower classes.

This made calls for social change and political inclusion more pronounced, posing a challenge to the strong U. By the s, Marxists gained increasing influence throughout the regions, prompting fears in the United States that Latin American instability posed a threat to U.


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Throughout the Cold War years, the U. He argued in his book that during that period the Soviet officials have been reluctant to view neutrality, neutralism or non-alignment as concepts or policies which denote an intermediate status between the blocs. The NAM, with countries as its full members and 17 observer members, includes many countries and governments of the world. This is a group whose voices cannot be ignored. India as the founder member of the Non Alignment Movement tries to engage proactively on number of issues significant to the Movement.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, was one among the five leaders who initiated this movement. Syrian crisis and Palestine statehood dominated among the Summit agenda issues. For Iran the last NAM summit was of grave significance. Iran is already a nuclear powered state, with its first reactor started its operation in Busher, in Iran showed last NAM Summit as evidence that despite the best efforts by the United States and the West it has not been isolated diplomatically.

The Atomic Race

The Summit had sessions which devoted to topics ranging from nuclear disarmament to UN reform, sustainable development, human rights, and opposition to unilateral sanctions. However, if Ban Ki-moon would have declined to attend the Summit, he would have reinforced widespread perceptions that he is a tool of the West. By attending the Summit he also confirmed the universality of the Secretary-General's role, and its independence from bilateral disputes. Ban-Ki moon showed that by attending NAM summit he took seriously his responsibility and that of the UN to pursue diplomatic engagement with all member states for peacefully addressing vital matters of international security.